Who doesn't know Mary Currie? The great physicist, tireless researcher, and first lady Nobel laureate, the majestic woman Mary Curie. He is best known for his discoveries and his two Nobel Prizes. In today's Articles, we will share Marie Curie's history with full Information.
Mary Curie and Pierre Curie | The best couple in science research
I remember the year, I don't remember the date. One summer night in 1903, some people were invited to a dinner party at a friend's house in Paris.
The friends gathered and thought, let's go to the friend's garden in the evening to eat some air. What was the occasion of the dinner invitation?
One of their friends is the physicist Mary Curie. He received his doctorate in science that day. Invitation to this dinner to celebrate it.
Five years ago, she and her husband discovered two new elements, radium, and polonium.
Together they won the Nobel Prize in Physics. They came to the dinner that day to show these two substances.
As friends sat in the garden, Mary Curie's husband, scientist Pierre Curie, pulled out a tube full of liquid glistening in the light.
Inside the tube were a very strong radium solution and a lining of zinc sulfide. Radium gave it a bright color.
This luminosity looked brilliantly bright in the dark. Recalling that night, the British physicist Lord Rutherford said, 'In the darkness, the light became much brighter. And that day was the glorious end of an unforgettable day.
Why did Lord Rutherford say that?
That night Rutherford noticed an ominous mark on Pierre Curie's hands. Inflammation of the wound due to the effect of radium rays. He also has pain in both hands.
But Pierre Curie is suffering so much. Injured by radium radiation, Pierre Curie died within a few days.
Marie Curie Research
Pierre Curie and his wife, Mary Curie, did a lot of experiments and researches and discovered two basic elements, polonium, and radium.
A lot of energy was emitted from both substances, which is why Mary called them radioactive. The name is given by him.
Stop here. Now let's come to the beginning.
Speaking of radium. There is no such thing as pure radium, you know. Even if the substance is separated, it becomes a compound immediately. Radium has a similarity with sodium.
Separation, like sodium, causes a terrible addiction to radium to oxygen. So when separated, oxidation occurs in the air. Radium means radium chloride.
It looks like a grain of salt, but when powdered it is like a fine powder, but it is so powerful and terribly destructive that it has to be wrapped in a glass tube.
Radium emits energy, so the rays emitted from radium can block lead, but glass cannot.
You will know by reading a fact how much energy radium holds.
- Scientist Becquerel's hand was burnt and later burnt by radium.
- Anthony Henry Becquerel was a French physicist. He was an expert on fluency.
Scientist Becquerel and radioactivity
Within ten days, he realized that the radium tube had become a small wound where it had been pressed against the body. In fact, he saw that the place was burned.
Radioactivity in the treatment of cancer
The radiation emitted from the radium burned some of his muscle cells. After a lot of good treatment, it took a few weeks for this deep wound to dry and the pain to heal.
However, doctors gradually came to realize that although these rays have a high potential for destruction, they can also be used to treat diseases.
Radium was first used to treat acne. Mole is often overlooked, but it can also be a big problem.
It is wonderful to be lame when you are underfoot. Achilles in the eyelids and obstruction in vision. There may be moles on the pockets, even under the fingernails.
The surgeon may have cut Achilles, but it almost came back. What is the other way? What Dr. Abbey did was take two and a half grains of radium from Mary Curie and apply that radium on Achilles for 30 minutes.
There were no signs of wounds. When doctors saw that radium was able to remove moles, they wanted to see its application on more dangerous tumors.
Radium has become a major tool in the fight against cancer, the most deadly disease. This radium was discovered by Mary Curie.
Although he won the Nobel Prize in Physics, for this reason, its use in medicine is increasing. In fact, radium has become essential in cancer treatment.
Alpha, beta, gamma
There were many discoveries in those old days. There are three types of rays emitted from radium:
- Beta and
- Gamma ray।
Lord Rutherford used the alpha ray to split the atom. The ray that burned Henry Becquerel's hand was the alpha ray. Beta rays work differently. Helps in the growth of plants.
The most amazing ray is the gamma-ray. This ray travels at the speed of light, the ability to pierce is very high.
- A sheet of paper can block alpha rays,
- A tin sheet can block beta rays, and
- Gamma rays can penetrate half an inch of thick steel.
The first thing to remember when talking about radium is Pierre Curie. Pierre, the son of a doctor, was born in 1859.
Pierre's father was a generous man. Without imposing anything on the boy, he let him think for himself.
Taught how to love nature, to know, to learn a lot from the surrounding environment. Pierre and his brother Jacques grew up happily ever after.
Jacques was very agile and Pierre was thoughtful. Pierre was very good at math.
We say that it is difficult to be a good scientist if you are not good at mathematics. During the holidays, Pierre loved to travel around the country.
Sometimes he would spend half the night in the forest, taking time to smell the sweet smell of trees and flowers. At the age of nineteen, Pierre earned a degree in physics.
He joined Sorborne as a scientific assistant. Electricity was his favorite subject. Pierre and Jacques also did some electrical work.
Four years later, Pierre became head of the laboratory at the School of Applied Physics in Paris. His very name as a teacher is very popular among the students. Thus he spent thirteen years happily and happily in real life.
Then came a big change in his life ... He fell in love with one of his students. Mary Salomeya Sklodoska Curie. Who later became known as Mary Curie.
Now let's tell the story of Mary Curie's life, her discovery.
Biography of Mary Curie
She was born on November 8, 18 in Warsaw, Poland, to a teacher's family. One brother, four sisters.
She is the fifth and youngest daughter of the parents. Dad was a pianist, singer, and teacher. Mother was a professor of physics and mathematics.
When Maria was eleven, her mother died of tuberculosis. From the age of four, Maria also learned to read and write.
His older sister Bronia handed him chalk and taught him the alphabet. Later, Maria became more talented than her elder sister.
Everyone would be surprised to see his memory in childhood. Dad was a science teacher. But the laboratory in which he worked did not have much equipment. That college hartakartas did not bother much about science in those days.
Although Maria's family was not well-off, her father used his own pocket money to buy laboratory equipment. It was often difficult to run the family.
Sometimes the students had to rent two or three rooms of the house to pay the bill.
There was a time when ten students lived with them in their house. And Maria had to sleep on a sofa in the dining room at night.
The money that his father would take to an assistant in the laboratory was also not allocated. So Mary Curie was told by her father to come to the laboratory to wash and clean the glass tubes.
Mary Curie gladly agreed. He spends most of the day in the laboratory. Maria grew up in the laboratory from an early age.
Mary Curie was fascinated by the glassware that her father used to keep. His interest in his father's work grew.
After finishing school during the day, he would come in the afternoon to help his father in the laboratory. Meanwhile, the mother contracted tuberculosis.
Her mother died when Maria was 11 years old. Mary Curie has always been a good student. When he passed high school, his result was so good that he got a gold medal.
The father knew that the girl had worked hard, so it was a good result. So as a reward he was allowed to spend a whole year with his relatives in the village house.
He had a wonderful time with his cousins. He always had a strong desire to study.
He wanted to come to Warsaw and start studying again. But where is the money to study in college? If there is no income in the family, how do you study in the family?
So this time Maria and her older sister started teaching their children privately. But later Mary Curie thought a lot and said to her older sister, 'I earn money, you better study. Later, when you become a doctor, you will pay for my education.
The older sister agreed. The financial hardship in the family increased. Panta furaya to bring salt - such a situation. Mary Currie was eighteen then. He took a job as a governess in a family home in the country.
The money she received paid for her older sister's education in Paris. The dream of becoming a great scientist while washing test tubes in my father's laboratory as a child will remain a dream.
Meanwhile, due to the job, he also got the opportunity to teach some children of the farmers.
Mary Curie fell in love with the owner's son. But the boy's parents did not agree. Maria is not rich enough to marry their son.
Meanwhile, the people of Warsaw are upset by the persecution of the Russian masters, thus one day the struggle for Poland's independence began.
Maria was one of the rebels, but the struggle failed, and Mary Curie was thrown out of the house.
He fled to Paris. He was only 22 years old then. Alone, no friends, no money in hand. The only way to save a life from starvation is to use brain intelligence and willingness to work.
She changed her name to Mary. He took his place in a cold room. Life is lived by eating only milk and bread.
A few days later he got a job in Sorbonne. The work involves washing glass bottles and shaving the hair for chemical testing.
But Mary did this job so well and her intelligence was so well known that she caught the eye of two famous people in the department.
One is Gabriel Lippmann, the head of the department, and the other is Henry Poincare, a scientist.
The two discover Mary's talent together. And immediately wrote a letter to his father.
Then a happy thing happened. His education began under Pierre Curie, a very quiet, polite, yet clever scientist.
Stunningly beautiful Mary. Very beautiful hair and blue and gray Michelle eyes. Mary, calm, humble but determined.
His soft form, but difficult to approach. It is not everyone's job to break through the walls around him. The sweet tone of the throat amazed everyone.
Pierre Curie is tall, emaciated, but with a smile on his face. The brightness of the kingdom in laughter. He crouched down.
Although both of them are poor, both of them have a deep passion for work. Mary's graduation is over. Top spot in the class. He also has a master's degree in physics. Then he got a scholarship. He also has a master's in mathematics.
The following year he received a doctorate in physics. Mary and Pierre fell in love with each other. While working, he realized that it is not possible for one person to survive without the other. Two by two.
Just as the meeting of Pierre and Mary changed their destiny, so did the course of science.
Mary said, 'He is a gentleman, calm but serious. I saw a picture of a dream man. " The two started working in the lab.
The two respect each other, then feel good, love.
He returned to Poland in the summer of 1894 after a successful math test and was left wondering if he could return to France.
Pierre's letter inspired him to pursue a doctorate in Paris. Mary said, 'Our work has drawn us closer. At one point, we both realized we would never have a better partner. "
Marie Curie Life
July 1895. They got married in a simple domestic ceremony. The ring did not change. The rules were not followed. The couple accepted each other as husband and wife.
With the money a cousin gave as a wedding gift, they bought two bicycles, one for Mary and the other for Pierre.
They rode their bikes to the honeymoon in the French suburbs.
Pierre was thirty-six and Mary was twenty-eight. Can't afford to have a maid in the house. They built a small nest.
Pierre and Mary do simple cooking with house cleaning. There is no money to spend in the market. But they are a very happy couple.
They don't go out of the house very much, they sit together in the evening and spend time in silence, sometimes there is a discussion on science.
The year 1895, the year they were married, marked two significant discoveries. Scientist Ranjan discovered X-rays.
That invisible, mysterious ray can pierce flesh, bones, and so on. Pictures of it on black paper are amazing!
Discovery of radioactive polonium
The Curie couple was greatly influenced by these two discoveries. The experiment began. Madame Curie began to test all the new basic substances.
He wanted to see if any substance other than uranium had the power to emit such extraordinary rays.
He used a small instrument called an electroscope, a device tied with a piece of gold leaf.
They began experimenting with a black metal called Peach Blend, from which uranium was extracted.
Madame Turi was surprised to see that the radiation coming out of it was unexpected. Four times more than what was thought.
Radioactivity is the scattering of energy and radioactive particles as a result of the fission of some basic substances such as uranium atoms.
The Kuri couple realized that Krishnakali contained some unknown radioactive substance in this metal which is stronger than uranium. How to find it?
Then the question is, how to get enough peach bread for this job? They do not have the money to buy it.
Good luck. The Austrian government picked them up from its own mine in Boghemiya and sent them a ton of Peach Blend. It is a valuable gift. The price per ton is more than two thousand pounds.
Then the work started. To make a hard stone smaller, to find that unknown substance...
Following a complex chemical process, the search continued. A few weeks later, the Curie couple's test is no longer over.
The metal is first boiled, then refined, leaving the liquid in the sediment, then converting the crystals.
Repeatedly following this method the search continued. In the end, a very strong radioactive substance was found.
Mary Curie, after naming her hometown, named it 'Polonium' but the search did not end there. Searching, moving ...
Finally, in 1902, they were able to detect radium salt. Half a teaspoon of salt fills that amount of radium.
It took him four years to complete the work. The task was not only difficult but also dangerous. The condition of Pierre Curie's hands was deplorable as he moved the radium tubes.
One would have thought that the danger of radiation radiating so fast in those days could be so terrible.
In 1903, Mary read a dissertation in front of the Paris Science Faculty, and she became famous overnight. Received doctorate degree.
Newspaper reporters and photographers surrounded him and wanted to know the reason for his success, his life.
Mary Curie is as gentle and soft-spoken as ever. He avoided many of their words. Then the Curry couple triumphed.
At the invitation of Lord Kelvin, they were awarded the Royal Society's, Davy Gold Medal. One of the best honors in science.
The same year another award came for them.
Pierre and Mary Curie shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with scientist Henry Becquerel. The medal was awarded for their work and for their discovery of radioactivity.
They received six thousand pounds, some of which they took with them and gave the rest to help friends and family.
Lectures on radium at the Royal Institution caused quite a stir. Curry's hand was bruised from the wounds and blisters, it was not possible to dress his own wound, but he had to work with the equipment and give a speech.
To prove that radium emits endless heat, Pierre took two glass jars, one containing a thermometer and a radium tube, the other containing only a thermometer, but not radium.
The temperature in the previous container was always 5.4 degrees Fahrenheit higher than the other. Pierre also showed that the yellow powder of zinc sulfide was being illuminated by radiant light.
It has also been shown that many substances can have radioactive properties under the influence of radium rays.
Join a new job
Do you know another thing? The easiest way to identify real diamonds and fake diamonds is to use radium.
Real diamonds are illuminated by radium in very bright light and nothing like fake diamonds. The Curie couple got a good job at Sorbonne for these new discoveries.
For the first time in his life, these two hardworking talented people got a touch of prosperity, got comfort, relief.
Pierre became a professor in the sister-in-law and Mary Curie a high-ranking official. In the meantime, a daughter came to light their house.
This time in life came to some happiness and intense busyness. But did they know that this happiness would not last them long? Then came the day of a great catastrophe.
Death of Pierre Curie
One such day in 1906. Pierre Curie went out to lunch with some close friends.
Pierre Curie was overjoyed, sitting down to lunch and telling his friends, "Listen everyone. I will stop teaching students this time. Only research will be my job."
So he went out anxiously. Leaving his friends, he started walking towards home. Friends all surprised.
Pierre left without saying a word. Lots of crowds on the streets. Traffic jams. People and gatherings. Anne went to cross the road, Pierre was crushed under a horse-drawn carriage. He died there.
Mary Curie was deeply saddened by Pierre's death. Life without Pierre that he could not even imagine.
Wherever they have gone so far, they have worked together, happily and sadly, their lives were being cut from the side. But the rules got in the way.
Yet Mary was a brave woman, she had a strong mind. With the strength of that mind, she overcame the grief of losing her husband.
One day he came back! He returned to work in the laboratory. He also started taking classes in Sorbonne. Pierre's classes. Mary Curie was the first female teacher at the university.
Mary, one of her friends, said that as long as she was alive, Pierre would continue the research that she had started together.
He kept his promise. He was thinking of raising his two daughters. Dr. Pierre's father. Curry took care of the two girls from Mary's family. She too died four years later.
Mary Curie and World War I.
He did not break even after two sudden deaths. He started raising two girls.
Meanwhile, the First World War began. Mary thought that if an X-ray machine could be given to a hospital running on the battlefield, the wounded soldiers would benefit a lot.
The treatment will be much easier if the soldiers have an X-ray of the body of the bullet or the sharp part of the bomb or mine shell.
Mary's daughter Irene was 18 at the time. She trained to be a nurse and went to work with her mother on the battlefield.
For this work of Mary, she probably became the most famous woman in the world at the end of the First World War.
Discovery of radium
After Pierre's death, Mary vowed to continue research. I said one thing before.
In 1910 he isolated radium — that is, he found it in pure form and also found its atomic weight.
She published an excellent article on radioactivity and won the Nobel Prize for the second time in 1911. Marie Curie Nobel Prize.
Achieved membership of the Swedish Royal Academy
He was twice awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of two radioactive substances, polonium and radium. He was made a member of the Swedish Royal Academy.
The French Institute refused to admit any woman just because it had not previously granted her access.
However, the French government appointed him head of the new Radium Institute, and in 1914 made him head of all the radiology departments at the military hospital.
In 1923, the French government announced a pension of 40,000 francs a year in recognition of his lifetime contribution.।
Death of Mary Currie
But Mary Curie fell ill. Radium radiation had been plaguing his body for years. This time he was the victim of this destruction.
A great life came to an end. The year is July 4, 1934.
Doctors later realized that the constant radiation from radium had caused cancer or leukemia in his blood. And he died of that disease.
Irene Curie and Eve Curry
Irene and Eve, the two daughters of Pierre and Mary, but gained a lot of fame in life. They also became quite famous.
Daughter Irene and her husband, Frederick Goliath, also became famous for their nuclear research. He received the Nobel Prize for his special contribution to this study.
Following in her mother's footsteps, she became a great scientist. Won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In 1935 another girl, Eve, became an established writer.
Many people have benefited from the discovery of Mary Curie and Pierre Curie, who endured many hardships in life.
The radioactive radiation that burned their skin, gradually infecting their bodies with cancer, became the cure for cancer. Many lives were saved.
We will remember the contribution of Mary Curie, a brilliant physicist, tireless researcher, and first lady Nobel laureate in human welfare, as well as her husband Pierre Curie.
Who knew there was so much fire inside this little lady Mary Curie! The contribution of a great humble and calm woman turned the world upside down.
Writing an autobiography towards the end of his life, he said, "I don't have a lot of events in my life, it's a simple story. I was born into a teacher family in Warsaw. I married Pierre Curie. There were two daughters. I worked in France. "
"A scientist in the laboratory is not only a technologist, but he is also a child who sees many natural phenomena, many times like fairy tales that fascinate him," he said.
Not only was Mary Curie one of the most famous and eminent scientists of all time, but she also won the Nobel Prize twice in an age when women scientists were not valued.
What a cruel death! In July 1934, exhausted, almost blind, Mary set out for eternity with her fingers, burned by the blows and blows of her favorite radium. Left for cancer treatment.
Quote from Madame Curie
Who Discovered Radium?
1 Curie How many Beckerel
1 Curie = 3.7 x 104 Beckerel
1 Curie = 3.7 x 104 Rutherford= 3.7 x 104 Beckerel
Mary Curie and Pierre Curie | The best couple in science research